Drip Irrigation Terminology
Drip Irrigation Terminology
Drip irrigation can seem like it comes with a language all its own. Knowing the specific drip irrigation terminology is important before planning your drip irrigation system.
PSI – Pounds per Square Inch
GPM – Gallons per Minute
GPH – Gallons per Hour
GAL - Gallons
FT - Foot
MHT – Male Hose Threads
FHT – Female Hose Threads
MPT – Male Pipe Threads
FPT – Female Pipe Threads
Water Source Connection Items, aka Head Assembly.
Timers: aka Hose Timer, Irrigation Timer, Water Timer, Controller & Clock. Timers are used to automate the watering of a drip irrigation system or sprinkler system.
Hose End Timer, Irrigation Controller
Valves: A manual or electric irrigation device used to control the flow of water. It is used in conjunction with a Irrigation Controller
Ball Valves: aka Shut off valves: Hose thread ball valves are used to shut off individual water lines or to split an existing water source to make two separate connections. Connect to 3/4" hose bibb, faucet, spigot, or garden hose end.
Inline Ball Valve, Y Ball Valve
Vacuum Breakers: aka Backflow Preventers: Prevents water from flowing back from your drip irrigation system into your household water. This prevents contamination of your water supply. Most municipalities require backflow prevention devices at the beginning of most irrigation systems.
Fertilizer Injector: aka Fert Injector: Fertilizer injectors are installed on the drip systems mainline to deliver liquid fertilizers and nutrients. Dilution rate is adjustable, so you can feed your drip system as needed.
Filters: aka Hose Filters & Drip Filters: Filters are installed between the hose vacuum breaker and the drip regulator and protects drip emitters, soaker hose dripline, sprayers and bubblers from rust, sand and other impurities that may clog them. Filters have removable screens for easy cleaning.
Inline Hose, Y Filter
Pressure Regulators: aka Pressure Reducers: A pressure regulator reduces household water pressure to a lower set pressure for use with a drip system. Always install a regulator after the filter.
Swivel Adapters: aka Tubing Adapters: Use to attach 1/2" or 1/4” mainline drip tubing to a water source connection assembly, hose bibb, spigot, faucet or the end of a garden hose. The swivel end screws onto male hose threads. Drip tubing inserts into the compression, direct-loc or barbed end.
Drip Zone Kit: Preassembled inline drip valve kit for drip irrigation systems. Includes valve, Y style filter and pressure regulator. It’s available in 3/4" or 1” pipe threads.
Drip Tubing: aka Poly Tubing, Poly Pipe, Supply Line, Trunk Line: Common term for Polyethylene pipe. Flexible, black tubing used for both drip irrigation main and lateral lines. Emitters can be inserted into tubing or connected via micro tubing. Common sizes are 1/2" (aka 5/8”) or 3/4" tubing.
Micro Tubing: aka Spaghetti Tubing, Feeder Tubing: 1/4" micro tubing can be used as the main line for small deck/flower-pot installations, but is more often used as a lateral supply line off of 1/2" main line tubing. The micro tubing carries water to emitters (drippers), and micro sprays. Also referred to as "Distribution Tubing" it is available in Polyethylene (PE) or, the more flexible Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC).
Compression Fittings: Fittings used to connect lengths of 1/2" and 3/4" solid drip tubing. The drip tubing is inserted into the compression fitting. The fittings internal compression ring squeezes the tubing slightly making a secure water tight seal. Compression fittings are more of a permanent connection and are not recommended for reuse. Glue or lubricants are not required.
Direct-Loc Fittings: aka Spin Loc, Perma Loc, Easy Loc or Power Loc: Twist barbed fittings onto 1/2" drip poly tubing, twist lock nut to lock tubing in place and make a water tight seal. Removable fittings make it easy to reconfigure your drip system if your needs or landscape designs change. Best fittings for winterizing your drip system – unscrew fittings, remove and store tubing away for winter. No glue or Teflon tape required.
¼” Barbed Connectors: aka Micro Connectors: Used to make connections between 1/4” micro tubing or to connect 1/4" micro tubing and 1/4" soaker hose dripline to 1/2" or 3/4" drip poly tubing. Use with a hole punch to attach to 1/2" or 3/4” solid tubing. No glue or lubricants are required.
Stakes: aka Clips & Hold Downs. Plastic or metal stakes used to hold drip tubing in place. Also available in 1/4” or 1/2” mounting clips to attach drip tubing to wood decks, eves, overhangs and fences.
Emitters: aka Drip Emitters, Drippers: Emitters distribute water droplets at a specified flow rate when used as part of a drip irrigation system. Emitters come in a variety sizes, styles, and flow rates. They have barbed or threaded bases. Barbed ends are either poked directly into 1/2" drip tubing or inserted into the end of 1/4" tubing. Threaded bases are screwed into micro tubing stakes and risers.
Pressure Compensating Emitter: Pressure compensating emitters deliver a consistent output of water, even with changes in pressure due to long drip runs or changes in pressure
Button Emitters, Turbo Style Emitters, Self Piercing Emitters with 1/4” barbed inlets
Multi Outlet & Retro Fit Emitters with 1/2” FPT inlets
Non Pressure Compensating Emitters: Non pressure compensating emitters output will vary with changes in elevation and pressure. These emitters are best where the water zone is level.
Flag Emitters, Turbo Key Style Emitters, Inline Emitters with 1/4" barbed ends
Sprayers: aka Micro Sprays & Jets: Micro spray covers a category of spray caps, bases, one-piece, and adjustable sprayers and bubblers that are small and designed to operate with drip irrigation systems. They can be used for ground cover, flower beds, vegetable gardens and landscapes where you need to water a large area.
Adjustable Sprayers, Stream Bubblers, Micro Sprays, Foggers & Misters with barbed and threaded ends
Tubing Stakes & Risers: Spray Stakes, Rigid Risers: Stakes and risers are use to create adjustable sprayer platforms to raise water above plants, shrubs or ground cover.
Soaker Hose Dripline: aka Drip Emitter Tubing, Dripper Line & Drip-a-Long: Soaker Hose Dripline has drip emitters injected into the tubing as it is extruded. The tubing comes with emitters evenly spaced from 6 to 12 inches for 1/4” size tubing and 12” to 3 feet for 1/2” size tubing. It’s useful in row crops, vegetable gardens and evenly-spaced tree and shrub plantings. It is available in both 1/2" and 1/4" tubing sizes. Soaker hose dripline limits are based on tubing size, emitter output and spacing.
1/4” & 1/2” Soaker Hose Dripline
Hole Punches: aka Tubing Punch: Tool used to punch a hole into solid drip poly tubing for the insertion of drip emitters or 1/4” barbed fittings.
Key Punch, Deluxe Hole Punch, Super Punch